Theodore Roosevelt: A Timeline of the 26th President's Life

Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The first season of our new podcast, History Vs., is all about Theodore Roosevelt: author, rancher, naturalist, and 26th president. (Make sure to subscribe if you haven't already!) As you're listening, follow along with this timeline.

Sources: Timeline of Theodore Roosevelt's Life, Library of Congress; Timeline, Theodore Roosevelt Center; Timeline, Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site.

1855

January 18, 1855

TR's oldest sister, Anna Roosevelt, a.k.a. Bamie or Bye, is born.

1858

October 27, 1858

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. is born to Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (Thee) and Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (Mittie) at 28 E. 20th Street in New York City.

1860

February 28, 1860

TR's brother, Elliott Roosevelt, is born.

1861

September 27, 1861

TR's sister, Corinne Roosevelt, is born.

1865

April 25, 1865

Theodore and Elliott watch Abraham Lincoln’s funeral procession from the window of their grandfather’s New York City mansion.

1869

May 1869

The Roosevelt family—including the kids, Anna (Bamie or Bye), Theodore, Elliott, and Corinne—take a trip to Europe.

1870

March 1870

The Roosevelts return from their trip abroad.

Thee issues a challenge to his son to build his body; Theodore accepts and gets to work.

Thee helps found the American Museum of Natural History.

TR begins "The Roosevelt Museum of Natural History."

1871

TR receives his first pair of glasses.

1872

The Roosevelts travel to Egypt and the Holy Land.

TR receives a gun for his 14th birthday.

1873

Theodore, Elliott, and Corrine live with a family in Dresden, Germany, for five months.

November 5, 1873

The Roosevelts return home to New York.

1874

The Roosevelts spend their first summer in Oyster Bay, the future location of TR's Sagamore Hill Estate.

1876

Theodore enters Harvard.

1877

President Rutherford B. Hayes nominates Thee for the position of Collector of Customs to the Port of New York. The Senate rejects the nomination.

July 1877

TR writes The Summer Birds of the Adirondacks.

1878

February 9, 1878

Thee dies of stomach cancer.

September 7, 1878

Roosevelt spends time with Bill Sewall in Maine.

October 18, 1878

Theodore meets Alice Hathaway Lee, his future wife.

1880

June 30, 1880

Theodore graduates from Harvard (magna cum laude).

October 27, 1880

Theodore marries Alice Hathaway Lee (whose nickname is “Sunshine”) on his 22nd birthday.

December 1880

Theodore enters law school at Columbia. (He later drops out.)

1881

August 1881

Roosevelt summits the Matterhorn while honeymooning with Alice.

November 9, 1881

Theodore is elected to the New York State Assembly, representing the 21st district.

1882

TR’s first book, The Naval War of 1812, is published.

August 1882

TR joins the National Guard; is a second lieutenant.

1883

January 1, 1883

TR is elected Speaker of the Republican Assembly.

September 1883

Theodore travels to the Dakota Badlands to hunt bison and purchases a stake in a ranch there.

November 1883

TR is re-elected to the NY State assembly.

1884

February 12, 1884

Alice gives birth to a healthy baby girl and names her Alice Lee.

February 14, 1884

Mittie dies of typhoid fever; a few hours later, Alice Hathaway Lee dies of Bright’s disease.

February 16, 1884

Alice and Mittie have a double funeral and are buried in Brooklyn’s Green-Wood Cemetery.

February 17, 1884

TR and Alice’s daughter is christened.

March 1884

TR commissions a home to be built in Long Island for his daughter Alice; it will become Sagamore Hill.

June 1884

Roosevelt serves as a delegate at the Republican National Convention in Chicago.

Late 1884

TR sells his home in New York City and leaves for the Dakotas, leaving Alice—whom he calls “Baby Lee”—in the care of his oldest sister, Bamie. He establishes Elkhorn Ranch in the Dakotas.

October 1884

TR briefly returns to New York to work on the Blaine presidential campaign; heads back to Elkhorn in November.

December 1884

TR helps to organize the Little Missouri River Stockmen’s Association, but returns to New York for Christmas.

1885

March 1885

TR’s book, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman, is published.

April 1885

Returns to the Dakotas; has a bar fight in Mingusville (now Wibaux, Montana).

May 1885

Participates in the spring cattle roundup, which lasts 32 days.

June 1885

Returns to New York, where Sagamore Hill is completed.

November 1885

Secretly begins courting his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow.

1886

TR becomes secretly engaged to Edith, after which he returns to the Badlands.

Spring 1886

Roosevelt, along with Bill Sewall and Wilmot Dow, pursue—and apprehend—three thieves who had stolen TR's boat from his Elkhorn Ranch. After he caught the bandits, he marched them overland, though extremely rugged areas, to face justice in Dickinson, North Dakota.

September 1886

TR returns to New York.

TR is nominated for mayor of New York on the Republican ticket, but later loses the election to Abram S. Hewitt.

December 2, 1886

TR and Edith marry in London.

A terrible winter—one of the worst in recorded history—begins in the Dakotas.

1887

March 1887

TR and Edith return to New York after their European honeymoon.

TR’s book on Thomas Hart Benton is published.

April 1887

TR visits the Dakotas to determine how much cattle he lost over the winter; half of his herd is gone. He begins to sell off his interests.

May 1887

Baby Alice comes to live with TR and Edith in Sagamore Hill.

September 13, 1887

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (Ted) is born.

1888

Three books of TR’s are published: Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail, Gouverneur Morris, and Essays on Practical Politics.

1889

May 1889

Roosevelt is appointed to the Civil Service Commission and moves to Washington, D.C.

The first two volumes of TR’s four-volume series, The Winning of the West, are published.

October 10, 1889

Kermit Roosevelt, TR and Edith’s second child, is born.

1891

August 13, 1891

Ethel Carow, TR and Edith’s third child, is born.

1893

The Wilderness Hunter is published.

1894

The third volume of The Winning of the West is published.

April 10, 1894

Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, TR and Edith’s fourth child, is born.

August 14, 1894

TR's brother, Elliott, dies.

1895

TR and Henry Cabot Lodge’s book, Hero Tales from American History, is published.

TR accepts a position on New York City’s board of police commissioners.

June 23, 1895

TR deploys 2000 officers to enforce the Excise Law in saloons across New York.

September 1895

Thirty thousand mostly German or German-Americans parade down Lexington Avenue to oppose TR’s enforcement of the Excise Law.

1896

The fourth volume of The Winning of the West is published.

1897

American Ideals and Some American Game are published.

April 1897

President William McKinley appoints TR Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy.

November 19, 1897

Quentin Roosevelt, TR and Edith’s fifth child, is born.

1898

May 1898

T. R. resigns his post as assistant secretary of the Navy to fight in the Spanish-American War. He is lieutenant colonel of the first U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment to fight in the war.

June 22, 1898

T.R. and the Rough Riders land in Cuba.

June 30, 1898

TR is given command of the Rough Riders and is made a colonel.

July 1, 1898

TR and the Rough Riders charge up Kettle Hill.

August 15, 1898

The Rough Riders come back to New York and are quarantined in Montauk.

November 8, 1898

TR is elected governor of New York.

1899

TR’s book The Rough Riders is published.

1900

TR publishes two books: A biography of Oliver Cromwell and The Strenuous Life.

November 1900

William McKinley is elected for a second term; TR is his vice president.

1901

March 4, 1901

McKinley and TR are inaugurated.

September 6, 1901

President William McKinley is shot in Buffalo, New York.

September 14, 1901

McKinley dies after being shot; TR is sworn in as president in Buffalo, New York.

October 16, 1901

Booker T. Washington dines with TR and his family in the White House. It was the first time a black person had eaten at the same table as a president, and it caused a scandal.

1902

February 18, 1902

TR orders the Justice Department to bring an anti-trust suit against Northern Securities; the court rules in 1904 that Northern Securities must dissolve.

May 1902

TR authorizes the creation of Crater Lake National Park in Oregon.

September 3, 1902

TR bruises his leg in a carriage accident and develops an infection that would lead to emergency surgery.

October 1902

TR mediates a labor dispute between mine workers and the coal industry, threatening to send troops to take over the mines if a resolution isn’t reached. (Thankfully, one is.)

November 14, 1902

Roosevelt goes on a hunting trip in Mississippi, where he refuses to shoot a bear tied to a tree. The event leads to the creation of the Teddy Bear.

December 1902

The president tells Germany that the United States will take action if Germany invades Venezuela to collect on debts. Later, he helps settle the dispute.

1903

March 14, 1903

Via an executive order, TR establishes Pelican Island in Florida, a bird reservation and the first time the government set aside land devoted to protecting wildlife.

May 1903

TR and John Muir go camping in Yosemite.

November 18, 1903

Panama Canal Treaty is signed.

1904

November 8, 1904

TR wins his reelection bid for president, defeating Democratic nominee Alton B. Parker by a wide margin. Roosevelt had 336 electoral votes to Parker’s 140.

December 6, 1904

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

1905

February 1, 1905

TR signs the act that facilitates the creation of the National Forest Service.

March 4, 1905

TR’s second presidential inauguration ceremony is held.

March 17, 1905

TR attends the wedding of his niece, Eleanor Roosevelt, to Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

June 2, 1905

TR creates the first federal game preserve in Wichita Forest, Oklahoma.

July 8, 1905

TR’s daughter Alice sets sail for Asia with Taft and other diplomatic delegates.

August 9, 1905

TR publishes Outdoor Pastimes of an American Hunter.

August 25, 1905

TR takes a ride in the USS Plunger off Long Island.

August 29, 1905

TR’s attempts to mediate talks between Russia and Japan to bring peace between the two countries are successful.

September 5, 1905

Signing of the Portsmouth Treaty, which ends the Russo-Japanese War.

1906

January 1906

TR brokers successful talks between Germany and France over their respective influence in Morocco.

February 17, 1906

TR’s daughter Alice marries Republican Congressman Nicholas Longworth on the White House lawn.

June 8, 1906

TR signs the Antiquities Act.

June 30, 1906

TR’s push to regulate the meatpacking and food industries culminates with the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, which oversee quality standards for consumer goods.

August 1906

TR dishonorably discharges a regiment of black soldiers accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white police officer in Brownsville, Texas. An investigation later revealed they had likely been framed and 14 men were allowed to reenlist.

November 1906

TR becomes the first president to travel to a foreign country while in office, visiting Panama to check on the construction of the Panama Canal.

December 1906

TR wins the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in ending the conflict between Russia and Japan. He is the first American to win a Nobel Prize of any kind.

1907

TR publishes Good Hunting.

January 1, 1907

TR sets a world record when he shakes 8513 hands.

December 16, 1907

TR’s notion to impress the rest of the world with military power results in the Great White Fleet, a naval spectacle with 16 ships and 14,000 sailors that spends the next 14 months touring the globe.

1908

January 11, 1908

TR designates the Grand Canyon in Arizona as a National Monument.

June, 1908

After TR decides not to pursue a third term, the Republican party nominates William Howard Taft as their presidential candidate.

1909

March 1909

TR joins the editorial staff of the small weekly news magazine The Outlook.

Roosevelt leaves the White House as William Howard Taft is sworn in as president.

April 1909

Roosevelt begins a yearlong safari in Mombasa in British East Africa accompanied by his son Kermit. By the end of the expedition, he has killed 296 animals.

April 1909

Roosevelt publishes Outlook Editorials.

1910

March 1910

TR publishes African Game Trails, American Problems, The New Nationalism, and African and European Addresses.

March 1910

TR embarks on a tour of Europe, including Budapest, Paris, and Brussels.

August 1910

TR visits 16 states on a speaking tour to promote his New Nationalism, which argues against special privileges for businesses in government and advocates equal rights for all citizens.

December 1910

Roosevelt travels to Norway to accept his Nobel Peace Prize.

1911

October 27, 1911

William Howard Taft’s Justice Department accuses J.P. Morgan’s U.S. Steel of violating the Sherman Act, breaking TR’s promise to Morgan that U.S. Steel wouldn’t be prosecuted.

1912

February 1912

TR throws his hat in the ring, announcing that he's running for president as a Republican.

June 1912

Republicans nominate incumbent President William Howard Taft as their party candidate.

August 5, 1912

The new National Progressive party, which is nicknamed the “Bull Moose” party, makes its official debut at a convention in Chicago.

August 7, 1912

TR is nominated to be the National Progressive party’s candidate for president.

October 14, 1912

John Schrank shoots TR in the chest when he comes to Milwaukee to deliver a campaign speech. Roosevelt finishes the speech before seeking medical treatment.

November 1912

TR receives the largest number of votes of any third-party candidate, but loses the presidential election to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.

1913

Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, History as Literature and Other Essays, and Progressive Principles are published.

October 1913

TR travels to South America for lecture tour.

Late 1913

TR sets off on a harrowing expedition to chart the River of Doubt in Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest; the first part of the expedition takes place over land.

1914

February 27, 1914

The expedition starts down the River of Doubt.

April 1914

TR completes the journey in the Amazon and the river is dubbed Rio Roosevelt or Rio Teodoro after him.

May 1914

Roosevelt returns home to New York and publishes the books Through the Brazilian Wilderness and Life-Histories of African Game Animals.

September 1914

Following the start of World War I, TR calls for "a world league for the peace of righteousness," foreshadowing the League of Nations.

1915

America and the World War by Theodore Roosevelt is published.

April - May, 1915

TR is the defendant in a libel suit brought by Republican machine boss William Barnes. TR wins.

1916

TR publishes Fear God and Take Your Own Part and A Booklover’s Holidays in the Open.

1917

TR’s four sons join the military to fight in World War I, and his daughter Ethel becomes a Red Cross nurse.

May 19, 1917

Wilson refuses TR's request to take a volunteer force—the Rough Riders 2.0—to the Western front of WWI.

1918

July 14, 1918

TR’s son Quentin dies after his plane is shot down over France.

November 1918

The Great Adventure by Theodore Roosevelt is published.

TR spends more than a month in the hospital being treated for recurring abscesses.

1919

January 3, 1919

TR dictates an editorial to the Kansas City Star on the proposed League of Nations.

January 5, 1919

TR dictates an article to the Metropolitan voicing support for women’s suffrage.

January 6, 1919

Theodore Roosevelt, 60, dies in his sleep at 4:15 a.m. after a pulmonary embolism.

January 8, 1919

Theodore Roosevelt is buried at Youngs Memorial Cemetery in Oyster Bay.

13 Surprising Facts About Ulysses S. Grant

U.S. Library of Congress, Getty Images
U.S. Library of Congress, Getty Images

From modest beginnings and Civil War military victories to the United States presidency and tough times in between, Ulysses S. Grant was a complicated man in perhaps the most complicated time in the country’s history. While his legacy has varied over the years, his unmistakable valor and ability to pull himself up by his (inevitably disheveled) bootstraps make him a fascinating figure in American history. Here are a few things you might not have known about the 18th president of the United States.

1. Ulysses S. Grant's real name is Hiram Ulysses Grant.

If you called him Ulysses S. Grant during his youth, he wouldn’t know who you were talking about. Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, to Jesse Root Grant, a tanner, and Hannah Simpson Grant. The young Ulysses did go by his middle name as a boy (according to legend, he disliked the initials H.U.G.), but the moniker known to the history books was bestowed upon him when he was nominated to attend West Point by Ohio congressman Thomas Hamer. Hamer, an old friend of Grant’s father, did Ulysses a favor and nominated him for enrollment at the prestigious military academy in 1839, and somehow, in the process, his name was put down as “Ulysses S. Grant,” with the “S” standing for Grant’s mother’s maiden name: Simpson. The young Grant, aware of his meager social standing, accepted the clerical error, and the name stuck. His classmates even used it for a nickname, calling him “Sam.” Later, in an 1844 letter to his future wife Julia, he joked, “Find some name beginning with ‘S’ for me, You know I have an ‘S’ in my name and don’t know what it stands for.” (Grant isn’t the only president with a strange middle name, by the way. Harry S. Truman’s middle initial was also just an “S.”)

2. Ulysses S. Grant hated the West Point uniform.

Though Grant’s father hoped that pushing him into the prestige of West Point would open up opportunities for his son, the younger Grant pretty much hated the decorum of going to school. He was known to be generally unkempt during his time there, and received demerits for his sloppy uniform habits (something he’d continue during his time as commander of the Union Army during the Civil War).

In an 1839 letter, a 17-year-old Grant told his cousin, McKinstry Griffith, he “would laugh at my appearance” if he saw the cadet in his uniform: “My pants set as tight to my skin as the bark to a tree.” If he bent over, he wrote, “they are very apt to crack with a report as loud as a pistol,” and “If you were to see me at a distance, the first question you would ask would be ‘Is that a fish or an animal?’”

3. Ulysses S. Grant was introduced to his wife, Julia, by her brother.

Julia Boggs Dent was born January 26, 1826 in St. Louis. She was a voracious reader and skilled pianist who also had some artistic talent.

Julia was introduced to her future husband by her brother, Fred, who attended West Point alongside the future general. He wrote to his sister of Grant, “I want you to know him, he is pure gold.” The matchmaker mentioned Julia to Grant as well. After graduating from West Point in 1843 as a brevet second lieutenant, Grant began to visit the Dents at their home outside St. Louis in 1844, and popped the question to Julia a few months later. They hid their engagement until 1845, when Grant asked her father for her hand; though Mr. Dent said yes, the Mexican-American War broke out, and Julia and Grant didn't marry until 1848.

4. Ulysses S. Grant went into battle with another future U.S. president: Zachary Taylor.

Zachary Taylor directing his troops at the Battle of Buena Vista in Northern Mexico during the Mexican-American war.
Hulton Archive, Getty Images

Grant fought in the Mexican-American War under General Zachary “Old Rough and Ready” Taylor, who went on to become the 12th president of the United States in 1849.

Taylor led Grant in his first military battle, along with thousands of troops, at the Battle of Palo Alto, with Grant going on to fight in nearly every major battle of the war. As regimental quartermaster during the Battle of Monterrey, Grant rode through heavy Mexican gunfire to deliver a message for much needed ammunition after Taylor’s troops ran out of bullets.

In his memoirs, Grant recalled how he admired Taylor for the same traits that he would be known for, including how Taylor “knew how to express what he wanted to say in the fewest well-chosen words” and how his general’s style “[met] the emergency without reference to how they would read in history.”

5. Ulysses S. Grant wasn't a military man at the start of the Civil War.

The war hero of the Mexican-American conflict was far from those accolades when the Civil War broke out in 1861. After his resignation, Grant took to a series of civilian jobs without much success. He spent seven years as a farmer, real estate agent, rent collector, and he even sold firewood on St. Louis street corners. When the Civil War was announced, Grant was working in his father’s leather store in Galena, Illinois.

6. Ulysses S. Grant turned his occupational failure into military success.

With a newfound patriotism at the outbreak of war, Grant attempted to enlist, but was initially rejected for a military appointment due to his previous indiscretions.

Illinois congressman Elihu Washburne took a chance on Grant and arranged a meeting with the governor of Illinois, Richard Yates. Grant was appointed to command a volunteer regiment, whipping them into shape well enough that it eventually earned Grant a spot as brigadier general of volunteers. (Grant later reciprocated Washburne’s favor by appointing Washburne to U.S. secretary of state, and later minister to France.)

Grant is credited with commanding two significant early Union victories at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, which earned him the nickname "Unconditional Surrender Grant."

7. Ulysses S. Grant almost lost his post at Shiloh.

Major General Ulysses S. Grant's Union Army of the Tennessee attacks the Confederate Army of Mississippi at the Battle of Shiloh
Hulton Archive, Getty Images

After the dual victories of Henry and Donelson, Grant faced harsh criticism for his leadership during the Battle of Shiloh, one of the costliest battles in American history to that point. Though the Union came out victorious, both sides suffered a staggering 23,746 total casualties—a majority of which were Union soldiers.

On April 6, 1862, Grant’s army was waiting to rendezvous with troops led by General Don Carlos Buell, with the goal of overtaking a major Confederate railroad junction and strategic transportation link in nearby Corinth, Mississippi. But before Buell arrived, Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston’s forces attacked Grant's troops. Caught off guard, the Union soldiers spent most of that day being beaten back by Confederate forces, to the point of being nearly overrun until Buell’s army showed up to provide reinforcements.

The Union won, but Grant’s lack of preparedness immediately brought about demands for his removal.

Pennsylvania politician Alexander McClure visited President Abraham Lincoln at the White House to call for Grant’s removal, saying, “I appealed to Lincoln for his own sake to remove Grant at once, and, in giving my reasons for it, I simply voiced the admittedly overwhelming protest from the loyal people of the land against Grant’s continuance in command.” McClure later recalled that Lincoln responded, “I can’t spare this man; he fights.”

Despite rumors that his early blunder at Shiloh was because he was under the influence, Grant assured Julia in a letter, dated April 30, 1862, that he was “sober as a deacon no matter what is said to the contrary.”

8. Ulysses S. Grant's next few battles, including Vicksburg and Chattanooga, solidified his bona fides.

For his next major objective, Grant commandeered a six-week siege on the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi, in order to take the city over from General John C. Pemberton. The Union bombardment was so profound that most residents of the city were forced to leave their homes and shack up in caves. The editor of the town’s Daily Citizen newspaper was even reduced to printing the news on wallpaper. Pemberton eventually surrendered on July 4, 1863.

Later that year, from November 23 to November 25, Union forces routed the Confederates at the Battle of Chattanooga. Grant, then a major general, masterminded a three-part attack—one of which was led by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman—against enemy entrenchments on two Confederate strongholds: Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain. The multi-faceted gamble worked, and the Union army was victorious.

Because of Grant’s successes, in March of 1864 he was promoted to lieutenant general with command of all Union forces. From then on, Grant would answer only to the president.

9. Ulysses S. Grant wrote the surrender terms at Appomattox.

Despite one last push by General Robert E. Lee to rally his beleaguered troops, the Battle of Appomattox Court House lasted only a few hours after Confederate forces were cut off from their final provisions and support. Lee sent a message to Grant announcing he was willing to surrender, and the two generals eventually met in the front parlor of the Wilmer McLean home in the early afternoon of April 9, 1865.

Lee arrived in full military dress—complete with sash and sword—while Grant characteristically stuck with his well-worn and muddied field uniform and boots. He then wrote out the single-paragraph terms of surrender.

Under the terms, Confederate soldiers and officers were allowed to return home; officers were permitted to keep their horses for use as farm animals (according to the National Park Service, Grant also ordered officers to allow private soldiers to keep their animals) and to keep side arms. Grant allowed starving Confederate troops be fed with Union rations.

When news of the surrender reached nearby Union troops, gun salutes rang out, but Grant, aware of the weight of the bloody war, sent out an order for all celebrations to stop. “The war is over,” he said. “The rebels are our countrymen again; and the best sign of rejoicing after the victory will be to abstain from all demonstrations in the field.”

10. Ulysses S. Grant was supposed to be at Ford's Theatre the night Abraham Lincoln was shot.

Lincoln assassination
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Days after the Appomattox surrender, Lincoln invited Grant to see a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre. Advertisements for the Good Friday 1865 performance even boasted that Grant would accompany President Lincoln and the first lady.

The celebrated general backed out, explaining that he and Julia were to travel to New Jersey to see their children instead. (In reality, Julia despised Mary Todd Lincoln and didn’t want to be in her company. Grant didn’t particularly want to go anyway. )

Grant was supposedly a target of John Wilkes Booth’s assassination plot, and was to be taken out along with Lincoln that night.

11. Ulysses S. Grant had no political experience when he became president.

Though he was a war hero, and sat in on cabinet meetings during Reconstruction under President Andrew Johnson, Grant had no political experience to speak of when he was nominated for president in 1868. But because the Civil War still loomed large at the time, it makes sense that one of the people credited with keeping the U.S. together would be given a shot.

He was elected for a second term, but scandals—including the 1869 Black Friday incident where two financiers attempted to corner the country’s gold market while Grant’s Treasury Department sold gold at weekly intervals to pay off the national debt—and his inability to maneuver party politics plagued his terms in office.

“It was my fortune, or misfortune, to be called to the office of Chief Executive without any previous political training,” he wrote in his farewell message to Congress. “Under such circumstances it is but reasonable to suppose that errors of judgment must have occurred.”

12. Ulysses S. Grant had some bad luck after his presidency.

Despite the unofficial two-term rule in use since George Washington—the 22nd Amendment, establishing an official presidential term limit, was ratified in 1951—Grant attempted a third term four years after leaving office, but couldn’t get enough votes at the Republican convention. James Garfield won the nomination and eventually the presidency.

After retiring from politics, Grant invested his savings and became a partner in a financial firm where his son was also a partner. But it eventually went bankrupt in 1884 after another of the partners swindled investors with faulty loans.

His luck didn’t seem to get any better—soon after, he learned he had throat cancer. To pay off his mounting debts and to provide for his family after he was gone, Grant began writing his memoirs and eventually signed a contract with none other than Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn author Mark Twain, whose Charles L. Webster & Company publishing house needed a hit.

13. Ulysses S. Grant died on July 23, 1885.

Grant finished his book just before he died; the two-volume Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant was a critical and commercial success, earning Julia royalties of about $450,000 (or more than $10 million today).

Grant's final resting place is a 150-foot-high tomb in New York City. According to the NPS, the tomb, designed by John Duncan, is the largest mausoleum in North America. The outside reads, “Let us have peace.” Julia was laid to rest next to her husband after her death in 1902.

You Can Take a Virtual Tour of Fallingwater and More of Frank Lloyd Wright's Most Famous Buildings

Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater in Pennsylvania.
Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater in Pennsylvania.
Daderot, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

If you only know one architect by name, there’s a pretty good chance it’s Frank Lloyd Wright. The 20th-century visionary, whose most famous works include Fallingwater in Pennsylvania and New York’s Guggenheim Museum, ushered American architecture into a modern era that prized simplicity and natural beauty over Victorian ostentation.

Since most of his buildings are closed to visitors right now, the Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy, the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, and Unity Temple Restoration Foundation are working together to bring the buildings to visitors via virtual tours.

Smithsonian reports that every Thursday at 1 p.m. EST, participating sites will share a new video of a Wright-constructed property across various social media accounts with the hashtag “#WrightVirtualVisits.” Last week, for example, Minneapolis’s Malcolm Willey House shared a video on its Facebook page of the Seth Peterson Cottage in Mirror Lake, Wisconsin. This way, fans who follow a certain building on social media will get to learn about others.

The video tours, hosted by the property owners or directors of Wright-affiliated organizations, cover everything from specific architectural elements, like sloping ceilings and built-in seating, to general themes in Wright’s work, like his commitment to accentuating features of the natural landscape. Some even touch on the process of adding modern technology to the houses; the Willey House, which was built in 1934, was outfitted with air conditioning during the early 21st century (though modern trappings don't necessarily make the houses any easier to sell).

In short, the videos are a great way for newcomers to be introduced to Wright’s legacy and for longtime fans to pick up behind-the-scenes details about his buildings. So far, 17 properties have volunteered to take part in the initiative, including Wright’s own Wisconsin estate, Taliesin, and Fallingwater, a summer residence for department store owner Edgar J. Kaufmann that Wright built on top of a waterfall in the mid-1930s.

You can discover the videos by searching for #WrightVirtualVisits on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, or you can bookmark this page from the Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy’s website, which will be updated with new videos as they’re made public.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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